Canine Influenza- What You Should Know

There have been 2 deaths reported in dogs in North Carolina from Canine Influenza (CIV). This come on the heels of outbreaks in Florida and Georgia. Tennessee recently confirmed positive cases as well.

US states with Canine Influenza Virus (CIV) infected dogs

We have recommended and required CIV vaccination at Foster Animal Hospital for several years now. Like most flu viruses, the original strain has mutated in to a second strain. Thankfully, there is a vaccine available that protects against both strains. We now have it in stock. The vaccination protocol is for your dog to receive 2 injections 2-4 weeks a part. If your dog has been vaccinated previously against the original strain, we still recommend the 2 injection series. That is because the original vaccine is not indicated to protect against the new strain.

It is especially important that dogs who frequent dog parks, kennels, doggie day care, grooming parlors, rehab facilities, and veterinary hospitals be vaccinated. This does not mean these places harbor the virus. It means when you congregate dogs, the chances of being exposed to the virus increase. Much like children at school, one infected child can infect a whole host of others. Even if your dog stays at home, she is still at risk. Therefore, we recommend all dogs be protected.

From the NCVMA:

Canine Influenza Virus

  • Canine Influenza Virus is spread through:
    • Close proximity to infected dogs (it is airborne and can travel up to 20 ft.; Dog parks are ideal for spreading the virus)
    • Contact with contaminated items (bowls, leashes, crates, tables, clothing, dog runs, etc.)
    • People moving between infected and uninfected dogs
    • 80% of all dogs that are exposed to the virus will contract it
    • The virus lives up to 24 hours on soft surfaces and up to 48 hours on hard surfaces.
  • Some exposed dogs will be subclinical carriers – meaning some dogs will contract and spread the virus without showing symptoms.
  • Dogs show clinical signs within 24-48 hours and can shed the virus for up to 28 days from exposure.
  • Most dogs will completely recover with proper treatment.
  • Dogs that regularly interact with dogs outside of their own family or frequent places where many dogs gather are most susceptible to exposure to Canine Influenza Virus.

Symptoms

  • Dry, hacking cough (similar to kennel cough)
  • Lack of appetite
  • Lethargy
  • Discharge from the nose or eyes
  • Fever (normal temperature is 101 – 102)

Prevention

  • The best protection is vaccination. There is now a single vaccination for both the H3N2 and H3N8 strains of the virus. The vaccination requires a booster shot two weeks after the initial vaccine. Vaccination provides the best chance of immunity within 7-14 days of booster shot.
  • Isolate sick animals and keep them isolated for up to 30 days after symptoms subside.
  • Practice good sanitation. Use a bleach and water mixture diluted to 1-part bleach x 30 parts water to disinfect common areas such as tables, bowls, leashes, crates, etc. Allow items to thoroughly air dry for a minimum of 10 minutes before exposing dogs to them.  Bleach breaks down quickly so solution should be made daily. Keep in mind that bleach becomes inactive in UV light. If mopping use two buckets so as not to cross contaminate areas
  • Wash your hands frequently, ideally between handling different dogs. At the very minimum, hand sanitizer should be used between handling dogs.
  • Use disposable gowns or wipe down clothing and shoes with a bleach solution between dogs or after leaving an area where dogs congregate.
  • Food/water bowls should be made of stainless steel instead of plastic because scratched plastic is hard to fully disinfect.

Treatment

  • Treatment of Canine Influenza Virus requires veterinary assistance. If you believe your dog may have Canine Influenza Virus, please contact your veterinarian immediately. Untreated, the illness may progress to pneumonia or other, more serious problems. H3N2 can lead to severe secondary pneumonia which can cause extremely sick dogs with potential fatalities.
  • Most dogs take 2-3 weeks to recover from the illness.

Containment

  • Any dog suspected of having Canine Influenza Virus should be immediately isolated from other dogs and should not attend dog shows, day care, grooming facilities, dog parks, or other places dogs gather. Dogs are contagious for up to 30 days once they have started showing symptoms.
  • Contact your veterinarian to let them know that your dog may be showing symptoms of Canine Influenza Virus. If your dog is going to a veterinary hospital or clinic, call ahead to let them know you have a suspected case of Canine Influenza Virus. They may ask you to follow a specific protocol before entering the clinic to minimize the spread of the disease, including waiting in your car until they are ready to examine your dog.
  • Keep sick dogs at home and isolated from other dogs and cats until you are certain the illness has run its course (typically 3-4 weeks).

Consideration for Event Venues

  • Use a bleach and water mixture diluted to 1-part bleach x 30 parts water to disinfect common areas including show floors, grooming tables, ring gates, in-ring examination tables and ramps, and x-pens. Allow solution to completely dry (at least ten minutes in order to assure virus has been killed). Bleach breaks down quickly so solution should be made daily. Keep in mind that bleach becomes inactive in UV light. If mopping use two buckets so as not to cross contaminate areas.
  • When wiping down hard surfaces paper towels are preferred over cloth.
  • Consider having two exam tables at every ring so that they can be cleaned and allowed to air dry frequently in between classes.
  • Provide hand sanitizer in each ring and in grooming areas.

Exhibitors should consider grooming dogs at their cars instead of using grooming areas where dogs are in very close proximity.

OTHER LINKS:

University of Florida

University of Tennessee

NC Dept. of Ag- CIV

 

Please call our office for any questions, concerns, or to schedule an appointment. The vaccine is in good supply right now but that may change as the word gets out.

As always, I am an email or phone call away!

All the best,

Stephen E Foster, DVM, CCRT

Foster Animal Hospital, P.A.

Foster Animal Clinic at Parkway Commons

Paws In Motion Canine Rehabilitation Center

730 Concord Parkway North

Concord, NC 28027

704-786-0104

sfoster@fosteranimalhospital.com